Hematuria also spelt as “Haematuria” is a medical symptom in which blood is found in the urine. Considered to be alarming, specially when diagnosed during the period of pregnancy, Hematuria could be of two types, microscopic and macroscopic. Microscopic hematuria is a symptom in which the blood cannot be noticed in the urine but only under microscopic evaluation of the urine. Whereas, macroscopic hematuria or gross hematuria is the condition in which blood can be seen in the urine.
Hematuria during Pregnancy: Hematuria or presence of blood in the urine during pregnancy is a matter of great concern. There could be several reasons to it of which a urinary tract infection is the most common reason, apart from kidney stones and gallstones.
Causes of Hematuria during Pregnancy: Hematuria could be caused due to several major and minor reasons. Some reasons such as menstruation, severe trauma, forceful physical activities, sexual activity, viral infections or a urinary tract infection (UTI) can cause hematuria during pregnancy. Apart from these reasons there could be several other severe reasons like cancers of the bladder or cancer of the kidney, blood clots, hemophilia, polycystic kidney disease, lupus, diabetes or sickle cell disease. The most common causes of hematuria during pregnancy are:
- Urinary tract infection: One of the main reasons of hematuria during pregnancy is the urinary tract infection. During pregnancy due to the growth in size and weight of the uterus the urine tract is blocked. This results in infection that causes blood or mucus in the urine.
- Kidney problems and Kidney Stone: Kidney stones are also a reason of hematuria in pregnant women because these stones bruise or damage the urinary tract when they pass with the urine thus causing severe pain and bleeding. The hardened mineral deposits in the kidney also cause continuous pain in the stomach near the kidney, and sometimes nausea and vomiting too. Some other kidney diseases also cause bleeding wit urine during pregnancy.
- Gallstones: At times the hardened mineral stones get deposited in the gall bladder thus blocking it and eventually causing pain and bleeding.
- Cancer of Gall bladder or Kidney: The presence of cancer in the gall bladder or the kidney may also result in the appearance of blood in urine during pregnancy.
Symptoms of Hematuria during Pregnancy: The symptoms of microscopic hematuria are not very prominent whereas for gross hematuria the symptoms are very much known. Some significant symptoms of hematuria are:
- Presence of blood cells in the urine.
- Pinkish, reddish, or brownish color of the urine along with presence of small blood clots.
- Burning sensation while urinating.
- Pain in the lower back, abdomen or groin.
- Fever, vomiting and weight loss with reduced appetite.
- Presence of high amount of protein in the urine.
Treatment of Hematuria:
Diaganosis: The treatment of hematuria shall begin with the diagnosis of the cause of the problem though the aforementioned symptoms are not applicable for the patients with microscopic hematuria but in case of any problem you must consult your doctor. The doctor shall diagnose the reason for your hematuria and then shall give you the required treatment. The treatment of hematuria during pregnancy is vital for your baby’s health and development.
Medication: Generally there is no specific treatment for an asymptomatic hematuria. But in case of irregular clinical, laboratory, or imaging studies a prolonged treatment based on the primary diagnosis may be given, suited to the need of the patient.
Consultation: All pregnant women with symptoms of urinary tract infections, irregularities or symptoms of systemic diseases like sickle cell nephropathy, collagen vascular diseases or bleeding disorders need complete medical supervision and consultation. In extreme or severe cases like presence of a tumor, or a physical urogenital abnormality, or a blockage in the bladder, kidney or the urine tract a urologist needs to be consulted.
Surgery: In case of ureter pelvic junction obstruction, or a tumor, or noticeable urolithiasis or any such physical irregularities, a surgery is performed.