Pregnancy miscarriage refers to unintentional loss of pregnancy. It is also known as spontaneous abortion.
Every year in the United States, there are approximately 600,000 women who experience pregnancy miscarriages.
Most of the pregnancy miscarriages happen before the end of first trimester of pregnancy.
The loss of pregnancy in the first trimester is known as early miscarriage.
However, pregnancy miscarriages can also occur in the second trimester. The miscarriages at this stage refer to late miscarriages.
The causes of pregnancy miscarriage are several, but most often it cannot be recognized. The most common cause of miscarriage is chromosomal abnormality. Chromosomes are special strands that hold the DNA of the baby.
There are 23 pairs of chromosomes in a human body to determine the physical characteristics and to carry out functions of the body.
After fertilization, the egg may begin to separate improperly with unusual number of chromosomes. Molar pregnancy is the most common type of chromosomal abnormality.
It is found that up to 75% of first trimester pregnancy miscarriages occur due to chromosomal defects. Most chromosomal abnormalities occur due to a defective egg or sperm, or due to the problem in the cell division process of the zygote.
Another cause of pregnancy miscarriage is uterus or cervix abnormality. You have 12% chances of having miscarriage during 12-24 weeks with this cause.
With uterus defect or abnormal shape, the uterus may not expand properly as the baby develops. Thus, a miscarriage may happen. On the other hand, a weak cervix may begin to open up and the baby may come out.
Immune disorders are one more cause of pregnancy miscarriage. Antiphospholipid antibodies can make blood clots in the placenta, which blocks or reduce the supply of blood to the baby, thus resulting in very slow growth in the baby or the baby may die overall.
Antinuclear antibodies will develop due to an autoimmune problem in Lupus or a Lupus-like syndrome. With this condition, the body attacks itself leading to a pregnancy miscarriage.
Blighted ovum is another common cause of pregnancy miscarriage. Blighted ovum will form when a fertilized egg implants within the uterus wall, but no fetal development. In this condition, the amniotic sac develops in the uterus without fetus.
The reason can be either the development of the baby may stop early or the absence of embryo in the uterus completely.
Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy where the implantation of the fertilized egg will be outside the uterus, mostly within one of the fallopian tubes. It can also develop in your ovaries or in abdomen.
Ectopic pregnancy is also known as a tubal pregnancy. Women with this type of pregnancy have fifty percent chances of having pregnancy miscarriage.
Even health conditions of the mother can lead to pregnancy miscarriage. Diabetes, hypertension, heart problems, and thyroid problems increases your chances of having miscarriage.
Smoking, alcohol consumption, drug usage, malnutrition, caffeine and exposure to toxic substances cause miscarriage. Age is a major factor of pregnancy miscarriage. The chances of having pregnancy loss increase over the age 35 and more.