Placental abruption is an uncommon but the most serious complication of pregnancy [Pregnancy Complications] and needs immediate medical attention.
The peeling of placenta away from the inner walls of the uterus before delivery either completely or partially is known as placental abruption.
This condition leads to insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients to your developing baby and also causes heavy bleeding. If the condition is left untreated, then it will be very serious for both you and your baby.
Effects of placental abruption on you:
- Blood transfusion and staying in intensive care after the delivery are essential due to large loss of blood or hemorrhage.
- Improper uterine contractions can lead to the usage of drugs to help the uterus to contract.
- You will encounter the problem of blood clotting for some days.
- The condition leading to severe shock can affect other organs of your body like kidney, liver and pituitary gland.
- If your blood does not clot at the time of cesarean section, then various transfusions can lead to disseminated intravascular coagulation. At this time, your doctor considers hysterectomy.
Effects of placental abruption on your baby:
- Due to the separation of large amount of placenta from the uterus, your baby will be distressed until the delivery.
- This condition leads to premature delivery of the baby and needs to keep your baby in intensive care unit for several months. Your baby will encounter the problem with feeding and breathing.
- If the baby in your uterus is distressed, there is a possibility to develop less amount of oxygen in your baby’s blood after delivery.
- Your baby will have low blood count or low blood pressure.
- If the placental separation is severe, then the baby will suffer from brain damage or he/she can also die before or immediately after the birth.
The most common symptoms of placental abruption include:
- Uterine tenderness
- Vaginal bleeding
- Abdominal pain
- Rapid uterine contractions
- Abnormalities associated with fetal heart
The conditions leading to placental abruption include:
The causes behind placental abruption are not completely unknown. But, the most common causes behind this condition include:
- Pregnancy after 35 years
- Smoking during pregnancy
- Cocaine usage during pregnancy
- Conditions like preeclampsia or hypertension
- Twin or multiple pregnancies
- Experiencing trauma to the abdomen
- Uterine abnormalities
- Occurrence of placental abruption in previous pregnancy
- Malformations of the uterus
- Malformations of the placenta
- Alcohol consumption during pregnancy
- Existence of uterine tumor called as leiomyoma
- Diseases like diabetes, collagen vascular disease, etc
Treating the condition of placental abruption:
Mainly the treatment for placental abruption depends on the severity of the condition, severity of separation, separation area, and the gestational age.
For partial separation, ample bed rest and close monitoring are prescribed if your pregnancy is not well matured. In some situations, blood transfusions and some other emergency treatments are recommended.
In case of complete or total separation, delivery is recommended. If there is stable fetus, then vaginal delivery is also recommended. If you have severe bleeding or the fetus is in distress, then it is better to consider cesarean delivery.
But, frankly speaking, no treatment will help to stop the separation of placenta from uterus and there is no established way to reattach it.
So, for the healthy growth of your unborn baby , it is better to stop smoking, alcohol consumption, and cocaine usage. But, some other causes of placental abruption are unavoidable like diabetes or high blood pressure.