When a pregnancy ends within the first 20 weeks, it’s known as miscarriage. It is indeed a very unfortunate incident for any woman and ‘Stillbirth” refers to fetal death that happens within the first 20 weeks. Studies have revealed that miscarriages happen mainly because the fertilized eggs die before maturing and this often happens even before the woman knows that she is pregnant.
For most women, miscarriages usually happen between the 7th and 12th weeks of pregnancy. However, in some cases miscarriages are done purposefully to end a pregnancy as tests and ultrasound may have revealed that the baby growing within is not normal and healthy. There are various kinds of miscarriages and differs with various factors like the cause, pain incurred, future risks etc.
Whatever it is, miscarriage means losing your precious baby, therefore if you feel the slightest possibility of miscarriage, immediately consult your gynecologist. Here are different types of miscarriages –
This happens usually during the 6-8 weeks or after 14 weeks of pregnancy, when all the products of conception are thrown out of the body. An ultrasound scan confirms that the womb is completely empty and no tissues of implantation are left within. In case, if something is left in the womb that can be removed by a short procedure called ERCP under anesthesia.
Once in a while women have cramping pains and bleeding during pregnancy – People most commonly think it to be a miscarriage but it is just minor spotting and the mother can carry the baby till full term without any problem. This occurrence will not affect the child’s health later.
If the cervix or the neck of the womb starts to dilate and open up, the pregnancy is risked and bleeding and pain will be the associated symptoms. The pain indicates that the womb is contracting with the intention of getting emptied. Intense nausea and excessive vomiting can also occur and large blood clots will pass out of the vagina. This occurrence needs immediate hospitalization and will inevitably lead to a miscarriage.
When the womb is not completely emptied and some conception remains are still there in the womb but there is no life within, it is known as incomplete miscarriage. Ultrasound scan can detect this situation; and will be followed up by an ERPC procedure.
If the embryo does not develop completely but still remains dead inside is known as missed miscarriage. The conception products do not pass out of the womb and retains within. Excessive nausea, breast tenderness and sudden reduction in womb size are some of the symptoms. Usually bleeding does not occur in this case and just a dark brown vaginal discharge is found. In very rare cases, there might be no signs at all.
Ectopic (or Tubal) Pregnancy
If the fertilised ovum gets implanted outside the womb, the case is known as ectopic pregnancy. The embryo does not have the capability to survive outside the womb and will evidently die soon resulting in miscarriage. The only symptom in this case is heavy bleeding with intense pain. In such cases, the woman should be hospitalised immediately as it can also be a life threatening situation due to blood loss. An ultrasound followed by a laparatomy is the method to remove the ectopic pregnancy, where the tube can also be removed for the mother’s safety.
Anembryonic Miscarriage (also called Blighted Ovum)
In this kind of miscarriage, no embryo is seen. The embryo must have died at a very early stage and has been reabsorbed by the body itself before it could develop at all. This kind of miscarriages usually happens between 8 to 11 weeks.