The physical or structural abnormality that occurs at birth is called birth defect.
Birth defect mostly happens in the first three months.In the United States, one baby out of thirty-three babies will come across this type of problem.
There are many reasons for the birth defect that include toxic effect of the fetus of the uterus, inherited conditions, injury at the birth, and unknown reason.
Birth defect can lead to mental or physical disorder, some of which results in death and some are treatable.
Birth defects are explained as abnormalities of function, structure, or metabolism.
Metabolic and structural abnormalities occur when a body part is imperfectly formed or missed and functional abnormalities occur when any part of the body does not function well.
Birth defect includes congenital heart disease, autism, cerebral palsy, cleft lip and palate, spina bifida, Turnerâ€™s syndrome, Down syndrome, progeria, fetal alcohol syndrome, etc.
Congenital heart defects occur when the parts of the heart does not form completely. They include coarctation of the aorta, aortic and pulmonary valve stenosis, atrial and ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus etc.
Autism is one of the birth defects that affect the brain development during first three years. Your baby with autism will have severe disturbance characterized by qualitative impairment in social interaction in communication, language, and social development.
One in 250 births will face this type of problem. Autism cannot be cured, but there are some treatments that will reduce some of the problem.
The other major birth defect is cerebral palsy. Cerebral palsy is defect of motor power and coordination related to damage of the brain.
Cerebral palsy causes damage to the areas of brain that controls the movements, due to which the baby cannot move muscles normally. This disorder cannot be treated until the baby is three years of age.
Spina bifida is embryologic failure of the fusion of vertebral arches. The baby with spina bifida will suffer from incomplete closure of spine. It occurs in the first month of pregnancy. Approximately 2500 pregnancies are suffering from this type of problem.
Progeria is an abnormal condition in which the normal development in the first year is followed by retardation of growth with senile appearance like dry and wrinkled skin, bald hair, etc.
Progeria is of different types which include Hutchinson-Gilford disease, Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome, premature senility syndrome.
Birth defects that result from alcoholism during pregnancy will come under fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FAS included mental retardation, skeletal malfunctioning, poor motor skills, CNS problems, etc.
Approximately 58-60% of the birth defects have no known causes according to March of Dimes.
Even though there is no birth defect in you or your partner or your family, there are chances of having defect in your baby.
Routine prenatal check-ups will help you to know if you have any infection or any condition that will affect your uterus and also it will help to determine if the baby has any defect. If you take precautions as per your health care professional, you can avoid most of the birth defects.